【老師救救我】連接詞 that 到底什麼時候可以省略?!

今天我們要來解答苦苦眾生用功學生長久以來一直搞混的問題:

That 這個字很常看到,可是有時候它可以省略,有時候又不能省略,搞得我好亂啊!到底它應該怎麼用呢?

別慌別慌,that 這個字其實很好理解的,我們掌握幾個原則就好囉!

關係代名詞

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我們之前有學過在關代當中,一些情況下可以省略 that,請參考【希平方上課囉!】關係代名詞省略法,除此之外,在學 that 的其他用法之前,我們必須先知道:that 可以用來引導一個子句,而所謂「子句」就是有主詞、有動詞等完整結構的小句子,例如:

I knew that he was lying.(我知道他在說謊。)

其中 that he was lying 就是一個由 that 所引導的「名詞子句」。接下來我們來看看哪些情況可省略、哪些不可省略 that!

 

That 可省略的情況

由 that 引導的名詞子句做受詞時,可以省略 that

例如:Mom said that she would take us to Disneyland this summer.
(媽媽說這個夏天她會帶我們去迪士尼樂園。)

這句當中 that she would take us to Disneyland this summer 是名詞子句,作為動詞 said 的受詞,所以這句的 that 可以省略,寫成:

Mom said she would take us to Disneyland this summer.

 

由 that 引導的名詞子句做同位語,可以省略 that。

所謂同位語就是指 that 引導的名詞子句用來補充說明前方的事物。
例如: The belief that God created the world in seven days is shared by every Christian.(每位基督徒都相信上帝在七天內創造世界。)

這句的 that God created the world in seven days 就是一個名詞子句,用來補充說明前面的 belief,這種情況下,that 可以省略,變成:

The belief God created the world in seven days is shared by every Christian.

 

That 不可省略的情況

由 that 引導的名詞子句做主詞時,不能省略 that。

前面提到,名詞子句當「受詞」時可以省略,要注意若是名詞子句在「主詞」位置時,that 就不能省略喔!
例如:That the earth is round is known to everyone.(地球是圓的這件事所有人都知道。)

其中整句的動詞是第二個 is,主詞則為 That the earth is round,這種情況下 that 必須保留。

 

and 連接的第二個子句,that 盡量不要省略。

前面我們提到 that 引導的名詞子句如果當作動詞的受詞時,可以省略,但要注意如果剛好是 and 連接的第二個子句的話,為了避免混淆與語意不清,因此建議盡量不要省略喔!
例如:I said I wanted to go to Japan and that I was trying to save some money for a trip there.(我說我想要去日本,而且我試著要存錢去那裡玩。)

這句中 I said「我說」兩件事:第一件事為省略了 that 的 (that) I wanted to go to Japan,第二件事則為 that I was trying to save some money for a trip there。如果把 that 拿掉,這樣的句子 I said I wanted to go to Japan and I was trying to save some money for a trip there. 就變成 and 連接兩件事,一件事為 I said I wanted to go to Japan,另一件事為 I was trying to save some money for a trip there.。

 

掌握以上原則,下次遇到 that 就可以一網打盡囉!

現在換你來試試

1. I thought _____ you were in your room.
(我以為你在你的房間。)
(A) that
(B) X
(C) 以上皆可

2. _____ you weren’t invited to the party must be a mistake.
(你沒有被邀請去派對一定是個錯誤。)
(A) that
(B) X
(C) 以上皆可

Ans: 1. (C) 2. (A)